
PLATFORM 
Windows 
PURPOSE 
Spatial statistics program for the analysis of crime incident locations 
FUNCTION 
The program inputs point (incident) locations and calculates various spatial statistics. Input can be in spherical or projected coordinates and the routine will calculate a reference grid. Spatial interaction can be measured by either distance (direct or Manhattan) or through a travel network which allows the interaction to be measured by time, speed, or travel cost. The spatial statistics in CrimeStat are subdivided into seven major categories:
1. Statistics describing the spatial distribution of incidents (such as the mean center, center of minimum distance, standard deviational ellipse, Moran's I spatial autocorrelation index, Moran correlogram, convex hull, or directional mean).
2. Statistics for describing properties of distances between incidents  nearest neighbor analysis, linear nearest neighbor analysis, Ripley's K, the assignment of primary points to secondary zones based on either nearest neighbor or pointinpolygon, and distance matrices calculations.
3. 'Hot spot' analysis  mode, fuzzy mode, hierarchical nearest neighbor clustering, riskadjusted hierarchical nearest neighbor, STAC, Kmeans clustering, and local Moran statistics.
4. Singlevariable kernel density estimation routine for producing a surface or contour estimate of the density of incidents and a dualvariable kernel density estimation routine for comparing the density of incidents to the density of an underlying baseline.
5. Spacetime analysis  Knox index, Mantel index, spatialtemporal moving average, and correlated walk analysis.
6. Journeytocrime analysis including calibration, estimation, and the drawing of crime trips. The journeytocrime function can be modeled with five different mathematical functions or an empiricallyderived function.
7. Crime travel demand, an application of travel demand theory to crime analysis. The model is conducted at the zonal level and includes modules for:
 Trip generation  separate models for trip productions and trip attractions using a stepwise, multivariate Poisson regression model with an overdispersion correction and a balancing procedure for ensuring that productions equals attractions.
 Trip distribution  calculating the observed trip distribution, modeling the trip distribution, and comparing the observed with the predicted trip length distribution. Travel impedance can be modeled with five different mathematical functions or an empiricallyderived function.
 Mode split  estimating the likely travel model split for each origindestination pair for up to five different travel modes.
 Network assignment  estimating the likely travel routes taken on a travel network including the total volume on each network segment. The network can be modeled using travel time, travel speed, or travel cost in addition to distance. Several network utilities are provided.

CODES 
Not Available 
TIP 
The program is accompanied by sample data sets and a well written manual which gives the background behind the statistics and worked examples. Examples from researchers in different fields are presented throughout the manual CrimeStat writes graphical objects to ArcView, MapInfo, Atlas*GISTM, Surfer for Windows, and ArcView Spatial Analyst.
Version 3 (November 2004) with updates to the manual through May 2005
Information about crime mapping can be found at www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/maps/ 
HOMEPAGE 
Home: www.icpsr.umich.edu/CRIMESTAT/
Reference:
Ned Levine, CrimeStat: A Spatial Statistics Program for the Analysis of Crime Incident Locations. Ned Levine & Associates, Houston, TX and the National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC. November 2004. 
